It is well-known that Our Lady of Fatima first mentioned that she would ask for the consecration of Russia to her Immaculate Heart in 1917, even before the Bolsheviks seized power that year in the weeks following the Miracle of the Sun of October 13.
This is, after all, the "second secret of Fatima" which Our Lady gave to the little visionaries Lucia Santos and Jacinta Marto in her third apparition to them on July 13, 1917:
You have seen hell where the souls of poor sinners go. To save them, God wishes to establish in the world devotion to my Immaculate Heart. If what I say to you is done, many souls will be saved and there will be peace. The war is going to end: but if people do not cease offending God, a worse one will break out during the Pontificate of Pius XI. When you see a night illumined by an unknown light*, know that this is the great sign given you by God that he is about to punish the world for its crimes, by means of war, famine, and persecutions of the Church and of the Holy Father. To prevent this, I shall come to ask for the consecration of Russia to my Immaculate Heart, and the Communion of reparation on the First Saturdays. If my requests are heeded, Russia will be converted, and there will be peace; if not, she will spread her errors throughout the world, causing wars and persecutions of the Church. The good will be martyred; the Holy Father will have much to suffer; various nations will be annihilated. In the end, my Immaculate Heart will triumph. The Holy Father will consecrate Russia to me, and she shall be converted, and a period of peace will be granted to the world.
What is far less known is that just as the apparitions of 1917 were very appropriately timed, so too was Our Lady's eventual request to consecrate Russia to her Immaculate Heart. It happened on June 13, 1929, when Our Lady appeared to Lucia, now Sister Lucia of the Dorothean nuns, when she had just relocated to the Spanish city of Tuy: http://www.fatima.org/essentials/facts/tuy.asp
In fact, as any historian of Russian history would tell you, the year 1929, not 1917, marked the true start of the Communist revolution for the vast majority of the population of the then-young Soviet Union. For it was in that year that, having fully consolidated his power in the major cities of Moscow and Leningrad, Joseph Stalin began his brutal campaign of agricultural collectivization of the Soviet countryside. Within 10 years, the landscape of the whole swathe of the world's largest nation was transformed, typically with the cruelest repression, to make the USSR the evil empire that would terrorize the world for the next half-century.